SATURDAY, MAR 26, 2015
Eric Lee, A-SOCIATED PRESS
TOPICS: CAR CULTURE , FROM THE WIRES, FUSION, BIOFUEL, SURVIVAL ISSUES
"The worst mistake in modern civilization is allowing excess automobile horsepower.... That is, we run cars and build throughways instead of asking what is the most appropriate transportation to make an optimal fit of people and environment." —H.T. Odum interview, 2001
TUCSON (A-P) — The Golden age of bicycles, 1880-1915, passed as cars came to dominate wheeled transportation. The Golden age of cars too shall pass away, as will the cheap fuel that powers them. They will again become toys of the rich.....
But surely, while fossil-fueled cars may pass away, they will merely come to be powered by alternative fuels such as electric or hydrogen, and the Car Culture will go on and on.....
These two possible futures will depend on whether energy becomes more or less abundant. Less energy means the end of life as most now know it. Less, however, may be the future most devoutly to be wished for. Technological optimists question only what source of power will provide energy so abundant it will be 'too cheap to meter': nuclear, geothermal, fusion, solar, wind, hydro, tidal, wave, biofuel, zero-point, Dilithium crystals, a Dyson sphere, or some combination of all. The often unstated thought is: "so that exponential growth can continue forever."
Electric and hydrogen are forms of fuel, not ultimate sources. Electric can be stored in capacitors or batteries, and transported by wire, while hydrogen can be stored as a compressed gas or chemically, and transported by pipe, yet neither makes itself. There are other forms of fuel, but only two sources: fusion and fission (other than prehistorical ones which includes geothermal, tidal, as well as fossil biofuels). Fission reactors have occurred naturally in Earth's crust in its early history, and occurs today in nuclear reactors where it is turned into heat/steam/electric power, which in turn could be turned into hydrogen and other fuels.
"HYDROGEN IS THE FUTURE: Welcome a new energy renaissance fueled by hydrogen – a clean, affordable and safe energy that can be easily produced in unlimited quantities on demand. HYDROGEN IS THE FUTURE. Say goodbye to dirty, deadly sources of power."
The above feels good to believe. Enthusiasm for feel-good beliefs is rarely diminished by their being delusional. "People would rather believe than know." —E.O. Wilson. Restate slightly: "LITHIUM IS THE FUTURE: Welcome a new energy renaissance fueled by lithium – a clean, affordable and safe energy that can be easily produced in unlimited quantities on demand. LITHIUM IS THE FUTURE. Say goodbye to dirty, deadly sources of power." Elon Musk's director of marketing would be tempted to agree.
That lithium is less common, not as "unlimited" as hydrogen, that some pointy-headed know-nothings say is "rare" for some reason, is a detail that diminishes belief in such a claim. Hence "HYDROGEN" is favored by the oversellers as even those who consider themselves scientifically literate will fall for it. That hydrogen is far less limiting than lithium, that when we run out we can just go to the sun and scoop up more, is easy to believe. For some reason we cannot use hydrogen to generate electricity for electrolysis of water to make more hydrogen gas. That hydrogen is not a fuel/energy source, is, well, merely an inconvenient truth best overlooked.
Energy is required to produce hydrogen. To produce large amounts you need a large source of fuel/energy. Stored hydrogen is a form of "fuel" as energy storage, like lithium batteries. Neither are a source/fuel. We can unoxidize water to make hydrogen, we can unoxidize carbon dioxide to make oxygen. We can recombine and use some of the energy released to drive cars. We could scoop up hydrogen from the sun to power bicycles at high speed but that would likely take more energy than could be produced by combining it with oxygen produced by solar energy by plants on Earth. There is no nearby place to scoop up oxygen. Turning fossil fuel into hydrogen is a feel-good technology currently oversold by and to those who would rather believe than know. Why believe in the second so called law of thermodynamics when you can believe what you want to?
Fusion is the source of all other fuels, including fossil ones. The sun is a fusion reactor and is the source of wind, hydroelectric, wave, biofuels, and solar electric. Fission power is a proven source, fusion power apart from in the sun, is not.
So it comes down to nuclear fission power plants or solar fusion as Earth-based fusion is merely another oversold want. If nuclear fission were used to fuel continued exponential growth, the world's uranium supplies won't last, and the Nuclear Age will be shorter than the Fossil Fuel Age. The certainty that technologists will create fusion reactors on Earth is a hope, a prospect, and for many a faith-based belief. Creating a fusion reactor on Earth is not needed as we have a fusion reactor 93 million miles away that has been supporting life on Earth for a few billion years and is good for a few 100's of millions of years to come. But no one owns it.
The Car Culture is one expression of the over-arching Growth Culture. The first cars were electric, but newly discovered petroleum reserves were there for the taking, so something that guzzled it was needed, and Ford had a better (for Rockefeller) idea, so Ford it was. Mass production began in 1913 and cars overpowered bicycles within a few years. The work day was reduced to 8 hours so three shifts could work around the clock.
The streets of the city once looked like:
But to make them look like:
The motorists, the wealthy and wouldbe rich, had to act fast. They managed, using the(ir) media, lawyers, lobbyists, and politicians, to claim that the carnage was the fault of pedestrians who didn't know they shouldn't step into the street. They relentlessly promoted the claim that only idiotic country hayseeds (jays: empty-headed rural bluejay-like chatterboxes) would step into traffic. A lie told often enough, as usual, became the putative truth. They managed to criminalize what had been the norm, what the majority favored, and lobbied for laws against "jaywalking." By the end of 1924 newspapers had come to champion the deeply held concerns of their advertisers by squarely blaming the carnage on walkers. By 1927, the conquest of the streets in all major cities had been achieved. Government of the money, by the money, and for the moneyed had prevailed.
Early shopping centers were made without sidewalk or bicycle access. But elsewhere pedestrians were allowed a narrow strip between buildings and parked cars since all businesses were not drive-ins or drive-throughs. Drivers still walked from their garage into their suburban home, accessible only by car, and from their car to place of work or place of shopping, so sidewalks had their use. Bicyclists were allowed to fend for themselves. The Car Culture had cometh.
The Car Culture was manufactured by the Growth Culture's advocates who profited all the way to the bank by promoting consumerism, the consumer way of life, and the more-is-better consumer society. "Labor saving" became the oft repeated mantra, which, translated, means "movement saving" activity intolerance. The thought that the passing of the Car Culture is unthinkable is also manufactured, as are its consumers (formerly known as citizens) collective inability to consider limits to growth. The real problem is not finding alternative fuels, even given that the failure to do so will put an end to growth and to the Growth Culture. The ultimate unthinkability is that we might find alternatives to cheap fossil fuel (e.g. fusion, or worse, everything else) and that exponential growth will continue until the entire surface of the planet and all crustal resources have been consumed. The concern is not that the Car/Growth Culture might end, but that it won't pass soon enough. We of the Anthropocene will have an era named after us, but an era that may be defined by they who are presiding over the greatest mass extinction since the late Cretaceous.
A Post-Car Culture will have another name and will say "no" to maximizing growth, consumption, speed, and the high-powered life. Thoughts of "MORE!" will be replaced by thoughts of "enough." Unlike growthers, "enoughers" will try to know their wants from their needs, and focus on their needs (as in actual needs) as distinct from manufactured wants they are incessantly told they need. Doing so is an act of revolution, an act of rightness. The collapse of the Car/Growth Culture will be the falling in of a rotten door, a clearing the way for a functional life. As Gandhi noted, “The world has enough for everyone's need, but not enough for everyone's greed.” For "greed" read "wants" and for "everyone's" read "a limited number of people's," and you'll have a basic grasp of matters.
There are many potential futures; pick