SUNDAY, DECMBER 13, 2015

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

Those who don't learn from history......

Eric Lee, A-SOCIATED PRESS

TOPICS: PAYING ATTENTION, FROM THE WIRES, AND THEN WHAT?, REALITY-BASED ISSUES

TUCSON (A-P) — Warning issued on November 18, 1992. Ancient history? The warning was not about what was going to happen in 1993 or the 20th century. A similar (but merely more dire) warning could have been issued annually since. But these are smarter than average humans who don't keep "doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results." It was by way of adding their imprimatur to Earth Summit 1992, the climax event of the Environmental Movement, whose fine words have largely been ignored in practice.

Approximately 1700 scientists from around the world, and the majority of the Nobel Prize laureates in the sciences, signed the following document. And, yes, Howard Odum signed as did many other notables. David Suzuki would have signed, but wasn't asked, as many others were not.

It is common knowledge within the scientific community that there are increasing numbers among them that sense things are going from bad to worse. Scientists in private are increasingly saying gloomy things they never used to say. Those who are paying attention cannot fail to notice that many scientists feel we’re approaching a point of no return or may have already passed it, because, well, we are or have.

If a warning from 1992 seems dismissable, try one from 2013. Only 520 signed, but if anyone with a PhD after their name could have signed, the number would be higher, yet those who choose to ignore inconvenient warnings would not be impressed. Warning: more words than below — Maintaining Humanity’s Life Support Systems in the 21st Century: Information for Policy Makers.

The statement is associated with an attempt to create a movement, the Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere (MAHB), to turn things around before it is too late. They are on a mission, which can be boiled down: Can scientists and "civil society" use "foresight intelligence....to ensure a sustainable and equitable future for all" by reducing "humanity's ecological footprint and social inequities before it is too late?" Assume "Yes." How? By understanding and communicating foresight intelligence to "create a vision of a plausible and compelling world in 2050 which is moving towards sustainability and social equity." That such can be achieved is assumed. Those who can question their assumptions can consider that a "likely not" is possible and take an interest in Plan B.

The warning follows. None of the issues have gone away (though CFCs were banned, the ozone hole, per NASA, may not heal until 2070) and other issues, such as global climate change, could be added. Earth's life-support system continues to be mutilated.


 

INTRODUCTION

Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course. Human activities inflict harsh and often irreversible damage on the environment and on critical resources. If not checked, many of our current practices put at serious risk the future that we wish for human society and the plant and animal kingdoms, and may so alter the living world that it will be unable to sustain life in the manner that we know. Fundamental changes are urgent if we are to avoid the collision our present course will bring about.

 

THE ENVIRONMENT

The environment is suffering critical stress:

The Atmosphere

Stratospheric ozone depletion threatens us with enhanced ultra-violet radiation at the earth's surface, which can be damaging or lethal to many life forms. Air pollution near ground level, and acid precipitation, are already causing widespread injury to humans, forests and crops.

Water Resources

Heedless exploitation of depletable groundwater supplies endangers food production and other essential human systems. Heavy demands on the world's surface waters have resulted in serious shortages in some 80 countries, containing 40% of the world's population. Pollution of rivers, lakes and groundwater further limits the supply.

Oceans

Destructive pressure on the oceans is severe, particularly in the coastal regions which produce most of the world's food fish. The total marine catch is now at or above the estimated maximum sustainable yield. Some fisheries have already shown signs of collapse. Rivers carrying heavy burdens of eroded soil into the seas also carry industrial, municipal, agricultural, and livestock waste -- some of it toxic

Soil

Loss of soil productivity, which is causing extensive Land abandonment, is a widespread byproduct of current practices in agriculture and animal husbandry. Since 1945, 11% of the earth's vegetated surface has been degraded -- an area larger than India and China combined -- and per capita food production in many parts of the world is decreasing.

Forests

Tropical rain forests, as well as tropical and temperate dry forests, are being destroyed rapidly. At present rates, some critical forest types will be gone in a few years and most of the tropical rain forest will be gone before the end of the next century. With them will go large numbers of plant and animal species.

Living Species

The irreversible loss of species, which by 2100 may reach one third of all species now living, is especially serious. We are losing the potential they hold for providing medicinal and other benefits, and the contribution that genetic diversity of life forms gives to the robustness of the world's biological systems and to the astonishing beauty of the earth itself.

Much of this damage is irreversible on a scale of centuries or permanent. Other processes appear to pose additional threats. Increasing levels of gases in the atmosphere from human activities, including carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel burning and from deforestation, may alter climate on a global scale. Predictions of global warming are still uncertain -- with projected effects ranging from tolerable to very severe -- but the potential risks are very great.

Our massive tampering with the world's interdependent web of life -- coupled with the environmental damage inflicted by deforestation, species loss, and climate change -- could trigger widespread adverse effects, including unpredictable collapses of critical biological systems whose interactions and dynamics we only imperfectly understand.

Uncertainty over the extent of these effects cannot excuse complacency or delay in facing the threat

 

POPULATION

The earth is finite. Its ability to absorb wastes and destructive effluent is finite. Its ability to provide food and energy is finite. Its ability to provide for growing numbers of people is finite. And we are fast approaching many of the earth's limits. Current economic practices which damage the environment, in both developed and underdeveloped nations, cannot be continued without the risk that vital global systems will be damaged beyond repair.

Pressures resulting from unrestrained population growth put demands on the natural world that can overwhelm any efforts to achieve a sustainable future. If we are to halt the destruction of our environment, we must accept limits to that growth. A World Bank estimate indicates that world population will not stabilize at less than 12.4 billion, while the United Nations concludes that the eventual total could reach 14 billion, a near tripling of today's 5.4 billion. But, even at this moment, one person in five lives in absolute poverty without enough to eat, and one in ten suffers serious malnutrition.

No more than one or a few decades remain before the chance to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and the prospects for humanity immeasurably diminished.

 

WARNING

We the undersigned, senior members of the world's scientific community, hereby warn all humanity of what lies ahead. A great change in our stewardship of the earth and the life on it, is required, if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated.

 

WHAT WE MUST DO

Five inextricably linked areas must be addressed simultaneously:

1. We must bring environmentally damaging activities under control to restore and protect the integrity of the earth's systems we depend on.

We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air and water. Priority must be given to the development of energy sources matched to third world needs -- small scale and relatively easy to implement.

We must halt deforestation, injury to and loss of agricultural land, and the loss of terrestrial and marine plant and animal species.

2. We must manage resources crucial to human welfare more effectively.

We must give high priority to efficient use of energy, water, and other materials, including expansion of conservation and recycling.

3. We must stabilize population. This will be possible only if all nations recognize that it requires improved social and economic conditions, and the adoption of effective, voluntary family planning.

4. We must reduce and eventually eliminate poverty.

5. We must ensure sexual equality, and guarantee women control over their own reproductive decisions.

The developed nations are the largest polluters in the world today. They must greatly reduce their overconsumption, if we are to reduce pressures on resources and the global environment. The developed nations have the obligation to provide aid and support to developing nations, because only the developed nations have the financial resources and the technical skills for these tasks.

Acting on this recognition is not altruism, but enlightened self-interest: whether industrialized or not, we all have but one lifeboat. No nation can escape from injury when global biological systems are damaged. No nation can escape from conflicts over increasingly scarce resources. In addition, environmental and economic instabilities will cause mass migrations with incalculable consequences for developed and undeveloped nations alike.

Developing nations must realize that environmental damage is one of the gravest threats they face, and that attempts to blunt it will be overwhelmed if their populations go unchecked. The greatest peril is to become trapped in spirals of environmental decline, poverty, and unrest, leading to social, economic and environmental collapse.

Success in this global endeavor will require a great reduction in violence and war. Resources now devoted to the preparation and conduct of war -- amounting to over $1 trillion annually -- will be badly needed in the new tasks and should be diverted to the new challenges.

A new ethic is required -- a new attitude towards discharging our responsibility for caring for ourselves and for the earth. We must recognize the earth's limited capacity to provide for us. We must recognize its fragility. We must no longer allow it to be ravaged. This ethic must motivate a great movement, convince reluctant leaders and reluctant governments and reluctant peoples themselves to effect the needed changes.

The scientists issuing this warning hope that our message will reach and affect people everywhere. We need the help of many.

We require the help of the world community of scientists -- natural, social, economic, political;

We require the help of the world's business and industrial leaders;

We require the help of the worlds religious leaders; and

We require the help of the world's peoples.

We call on all to join us in this task.

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PROMINENT INDIVIDUALS AMONG MORE THAN 1,500 SIGNATORIES

Anatole Abragam, Physicist; Fmr. Member, Pontifical Academy of Sciences; France. Carlos Aguirre President, Academy of Sciences, Bolivia. Walter Alvarez Geologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Viqar Uddin Ammad, Chemist, Pakistani & Third World Academies, Pakistan. Claude Allegre, Geophysicist, Crafoord Prize, France. Michael Alpers Epidemiologist, Inst. of Med. Research, Papua New Guinea. Anne Anastasi, Psychologist, National Medal of Science, USA. Philip Anderson, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Christian Anfinsen, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA. How Ghee Ang, Chemist, Third World Academy, Singapore. Werner Arber, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Switzerland. Mary Ellen Avery, Pediatrician, National Medal of Science, USA. Julius Axelrod, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Michael Atiyah, Mathematician; President, Royal Society; Great Britain. Howard Bachrach, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA. John Backus, Computer Scientist, National Medal of Science, USA. Achmad Baiquni, Physicist, Indonesian & Third World Academies, Indonesia. David Baltimore, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. H. A. Barker, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA. Francisco J. Barrantes, Biophysicist, Third World Academy, Argentina. David Bates, Physicist, Royal Irish Academy, Ireland. Alan Battersby, Chemist, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain. Baruj Benacerraf, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Georg Bednorz, Nobel laureate, Physics; Switzerland. Germot Bergold, Inst. Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Venezuela. Sune Bergstrom, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Sweden. Daniel Bes, Physicist, Argentinean & Third World Academies, Argentina. Hans Bethe, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Arthur Birch Chemist, Australian Academy of Science, Australia. Michael Bishop, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Konrad Bloch, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Nicholaas Bloembergen, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. David Mervyn Blow, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain. Baruch Blumberg, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Bert Bolin, Meteorologist, Tyler Prize, Sweden. Norman Borlaug, Agricultural Scientist, Nobel laureate, Peace; USA. & Mexico Frederick Bormann, Forest Ecologist; Past President, Ecological Soc. of Amer.; USA. Raoul Bott, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA. Ronald Breslow, Chemist, National Medal of Science Ricardo Bressani, Inst. of Nutrition, Guatemalan & Third World Academies, Guatemala. Hermann Bruck, Astronomer, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Great Britain. Gerardo Budowski, Natural Resources, Univ. Para La Paz, Costa Rica. E. Margaret Burbidge, Astronomer, National Medal of Science, USA. Robert Burris, Biochemist, Wolf Prize in Agriculture, USA. Glenn Burton, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA. Adolph Butenandt, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Fmr. President, Max Planck Inst.; Germany. Sergio Cabrera, Biologist, Univ. de Chile, Chile. Paulo C. Campos, Medical scientist, Philippine & Third World Academies, Philippines. Ennio Candotti, Physicist; President, Brazilian Soc. Adv. of Science; Brazil. Henri Cartan, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, France. Carlos Chagas, Biologist; Univ. de Rio de Janeiro; Fmr. President, Pontifical Academy of Sciences; Brazil. Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar, Center for Liquid Crystal Research, India Georges Charpak, Nobel laureate, Physics; France. Joseph Chatt, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, Great Britain. Shiing-Shen Chern, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, China & USA. Christopher Chetsanga, Biochemist, Affican & Third World Academies, Zimbabwe. Morris Cohen, Engineering, National Medal of Science, USA. Stanley Cohen, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Stanley N. Cohen, Geneticist, Wolf Prize in Medicine, USA. Mildred Cohn, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA. E. J. Corey, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, USA. John Cornforth, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Hector Croxatto, Physiologist, Pontifical & Third World Academies, Chile. Paul Crutzen, Chemist, Tyler Prize, Germany. Partha Dasgupta, Economist, Royal Society, Great Britain. Jean Dausset, Nobel laureate, Medicine; France. Ogulande Robert Davidson, Univ. Res. & Dev. Serv., African Acad., Sierra Leone. Margaret Davis, Ecologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Luis D'Croz, Limnologist, Univ. de Panama, Panama. Gerard Debreu, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Nobel laureate, Physics; France. Johann Deisenhofer, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany & USA. Frederica de Laguna, Anthropologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Paul-Yves Denis, Geographer, Academy of Sciences, Canada Pierre Deligne, Mathematician, Crafoord Prize, France. Frank Dixon, Pathologist, Lasker Award, USA. Johanna Dobereiner, Biologist, First Sec., Brazilian Academy of Sci.; Pontifical & Third World Academies, Brazil. Joseph Doob, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA. Renato Dulbecco, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Heneri Dzinotyiweyi, Mathematician, African & Third World Academies, Zimbabwe Manfred Eigen, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany Samuel Eilenberg, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, USA. Mahdi Elmandjra, Economist; Vice President, African Academy of Sciences; Morocco Paul Ehrlich, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA. Thomas Eisner, Biologist, Tyler Prize, USA. Mohammed T. El-Ashry, Environmental scientist, Third World Academy, Egypt & USA. Gertrude Elion, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Aina Elvius, Astronomer, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden K. O. Emery, Oceanographer, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Paul Erdos, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, Hungary Richard Ernst, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Switzerland. Vittorio Ersparmer, Pharmacologist, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy. Sandra Faber, Astronomer, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Nina Federoff, Embryologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Herman Feshbach, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA. Inga Fischer-Hjalmars, Biologist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. Michael Ellis Fisher, Physicist, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great Britain. & USA. Val Fitch, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Daflinn Follesdal, President, Norwegian Academy of Science; Norway. William Fowler, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Otto Frankel, Geneticist, Australian Academy of Sciences, Australia. Herbert Friedman, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA. Jerome Friedman, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Konstantin V. Frolov Engineer; Vice P.resident, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia. Kenichi Fukui, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Japan Madhav Gadgil, Ecologist, National Science Academy, India. Mary Gaillard, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences. USA. Carleton Gajdusek, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Robert Gallo, Research Scientist, Lasker Award, USA. Rodrigo Gamez ,Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica. Antonio Garcia-Bellido, Biologist, Univ. Auto. Madrid, Royal Society, Spain. Leopoldo Garcia-Collin, Physicist, Latin American & Third World Academies, Mexico. Percy Garnham, Royal Society & Pontifical Academy, Great Britain. Richard Garwin, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Murray Gell-Mann, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Georgii Georgiev, Biologist, Lenin Prize, Russia. Humam Bishara Ghassib, Physicist, Third World Academy, Jordan Ricardo Giacconi, Astronomer, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA. Eleanor J. Gibson, Psychologist, National Medal of Science, USA. Marvin Goldberger, Physicist; Fmr. President, Calif. Inst. of Tech., USA. Maurice Goldhaber, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA. Donald Glaser, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Sheldon Glashow, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. James Gowans, Wolf Prize in Medicine, France. Roger Green, Anthropologist, Royal Society, New Zealand. Peter Greenwood, Ichthyologist, Royal Society, Great Britain. Edward Goldberg, Chemist, Tyler Prize, USA. Coluthur Gopolan, Nutrition Foundation of India, Indian & Third World Academies, India. Stephen Jay Gould, Paleontologist, Author, Harvard Univ., USA. Roger Guillemin, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Herbert Gutowsky, Wolf Prize in Chemistry, USA. Erwin Hahn, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA. Gonzalo Halffter, Ecologist, Inst. Pol. Nac. ,Mexico. Kerstin Hall, Endocrinologist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. Mohammed Ahmed Hamdan, Mathematician, Third World, Academy, Jordan Adnan Hamoui, Mathematician, Third World, Academy, Kuwait. A. M. Harun-ar Rashid, Physicist; Sec., Bangladesh, Academy of Sci., Bangladesh. Mohammed H. A. Hassan, Physicist; Exec. Sec., Third World Academy of Sciences; Sudan & Italy Ahmed Hassanli, Chemist, African Academy of Sciences, Tanzania & Kenya. Herbert Hauptman, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA. Stephen Hawking, Mathematician, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great Britain. Elizabeth Hay, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Dudley Herschbach, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, USA. Gerhard Herzberg, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Canada. Antony Hewish, Nobel laureate, Physics; Great Britain. George Hitchings, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Roald Hoffman, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA. Robert Holley, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Nick Holonyak, Electrical Engineer, National Medal of Science, USA. Lars Hormander, Wolf Prize in Mathematics, Sweden. Dorothy Horstmann, Epidemiologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. John Houghton, Meteorologist; Chairman, Science Working Group, IPCC; Great Britain. Sarah Hrdy, Anthropologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Kenneth Hsu, Geologist, Third World Academy, China & Switzerland. Kun Huang, Physicist, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Hiroshi Inose, Electrical Engineer; Vice President, Engineering Academy; Japan. Turner T. Isoun, Pathologist, African Academy of Sciences, Nigeria. Francois Jacob, Nobel laureate, Medicine; France. Carl-Olof Jacobson Zoologist; Sec-Gen., Royal Academy of Sciences; Sweden. Dorothea Jameson, Psychologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Daniel Janzen, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA. Cecilia Jarlskog, Physicist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. Louise Johnson, Biophysicist, Royal Society, Great Britain. Harold Johnston, Chemist, Tyler Prize, USA. Victor A. Kabanov, Chemist, Lenin Prize in Science, Russia. Jerome Karle, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Robert Kates, Geographer, National Medal of Science, USA. Frederick I. B. Kayanja, Vice-Chnclr., Mbarara Univ., Third World Academy, Uganda. Joseph Keller, Mathematician, National Medal of Science, USA. Henry Kendall, Nobel laureate, Physics; Chairman, Union of Concerned Scientists; USA. John Kendrew, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Elisabeth Kessler, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. Maung-U Khin, Pediatrician, Third World Academy, Myamnar & USA. Gurdev Khush, Agronomist, International Rice Institute, Indian Natl. Sci. Academy, India & Philippines. Susan Kieffer, Geologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Klaus von Klitzing, Nobel laureate, Physics; Germany. Aaron Klug, Nobel laureate, Chemistry, Great Britain. E. F. Knipling, Agricultural Researcher, National Medal of Science, USA. Walter Kohn, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA. Janos Kornai, Economist, Hungarian Academy of Science, Hungary. Aderemi Kuku, Mathematician, African & Third World Acads., Nigeria. Ikuo Kushiro, Geologist, Japan Academy, Japan Devendra Lal, Geophysicist, National Science Academy, India. Gerardo Lamas-Muller, Biologist, Museo de Historia Natural, Peru Torvard Laurent, Physiological chemist; President, Royal Academy of Sciences; Sweden Leon Lederman, Nobel laureate, Physics; Chr., Amer. Assn. Adv. Sci.; USA. Sang Soo Lee, Physicist, Korean & Third World Academies, Rep. of Korea. Yuan T. Lee, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; USA. Susan Leeman PharmacologistX National Academy of Sciences, USA. Jean Marie Lehn, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; France. Wassily Leontief, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA. Luna Leopold, Geologist, National Medal of Science, USA. Louis Leprince-Ringuet, Physicist, French & Pontifical Academies, France. Vladilen Letokhov, Physicist, Lenin Prize in Science, Russia. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. & Italy. Li Chang-lin, Environmental Sciences, Fudan University, China. Shan Tao Liao, Mathematician, Chinese & Third World Academies, China. William Lipscomb, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Jane Lubchenco, Zoologist; President-Elect, Ecological Soc. of Amer.; USA. Christopher Magazda, Limnologist, African Academy of Sciences, Zimbabwe. Lydia Phindile Makhubu, Chemist, Third World & African Academies, Swaziland. Khursheed Ahmad Malik, Microbiologist, Pakistan & Third World Academies, Pakistan & Germany Lynn Margulis, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Paul Marks, Oncologist, National Medal of Science, USA. George Martine, Inst. for Study of Society, Population, & Nature; Brazil Frederico Mayor, Biochemist; Dir. Gen., UNESCO, Spain & France. Ernst Mayr, Zoologist, National Medal of Science, USA. Maclyn McCarty, Wolf Prize in Medicine, USA. James McConnell, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Ireland. Digby McLaren, Past President, Royal Society of Canada; Canada. James Meade, Nobel laureate, Economics; Great Britain. Jerrold Meinwald, Chemistry, Tyler Prize, USA. M. G. K Menon, Physicist; President, International Council of Scientific Unions; India. Gennady Mesiatz, Physicist; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia. Jan Michalski, Biologist, Polish Academy of Science, Poland. Hartmut Michel, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Germany. Brenda Milner, Neurologist, Academy of Sciences, Canada Cesar Milstein, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Argentina & Great Britain. Franco Modigliani, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA. Andrei Monin, Oceanologist, State Prize, Russia. Marcos Moshinsky, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Mexico Nevill Mott, Nobel laureate, Physics; Great Britain. Teruaki Mukaiyama, Chemist, Japan Academy, Japan. Walter Munk, Geophysicist, National Medal of Science, USA. Anne Murray, Ethnographer, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. Joseph Murray, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Noreen Murray, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain. Lawrence Mysak, Meteorologist; Vice President, Academy of Science, Royal Society of Canada; Canada. Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Astrophysicist, Indian & Third World Academies, India. Anwar Nasim, Biologist, Third World Academy, Saudi Arabia. Kim Nasmyth, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain. & Austria. James Neel, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA. Louis Neel, Nobel laureate, Physics; France. Yuval Ne'eman, Physicist, Natl. Acad. of Sci. & Humanities, Israel. Oleg M. Nefedov, Chemist; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia Erwin Neher, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Germany Marshall Nirenberg, Biochemist; Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Yasutomi Nishizuka, Biochemist, Lasker Award, Japan John S. Nkoma, Physicist, Third World Academy, Botswana. Paul Nchoji Nkvvi, Anthropologist, African Academy, Cameroon. Howard Odum, Ecologist, Crafoord Prize, USA. Bede Nwoye Okigbo, Agricultural Scientist; Dir., U.N. Unv. Pgm. Natrl. Res. in Afr.; Nigeria & Kenya. Ayub Khan Ommaya, Neurobiologist, Third World Academy, Pakistan & USA. Cyril Agodi Onwumechili, Physicist, Fmr. Pres., Nigerian Acad. of Sciences, Nigeria & Great Britain. Mary Jane Osborn, Microbiologist, National Academy of Scientists, USA. Yuri Ossipyan, Physicist; Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences; Russia. Autzr Singh Paintal, Physiologist, Fmr. President, Indian National Science Academy, India. George Pake, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA. George Palade, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Mary Lou Pardue, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Linus Pauling, Nobel laureate, Chemistry & Pence, USA. Barbara Pearse, Molecular Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain. Muhammed Abed Peerally, Biologist, Third World Academy, Mauritius Manuel Peimbert, Astronomer, Univ. Nac. Aut. de Mexico, Mexico. Roger Penrose, Mathematician, Wolf Prize in Physics, Great Britain. John Philip, Agricultural Science, Australian Academy of Science, Australia. Lilian Pickford, Physiologist, Royal Society, Great Britain. John R. Pierce, Electrical Engineer, National Medal of Science, USA. John Polanyi, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Canada. George Porter, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Ilya Prigogine, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Belgium. Giampietro Puppi, Physicist, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Italy Edward Purcell, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Atta ur-Rahman, Chemist, Pakistani & Third World Academies, Pakistan G. N. Ramachandran, Mathematician, Inst. of Science, India. Tiruppattur Ramakrishnan, Physicist, Indian & Third World Academies, India. Chintamani Rao, Inst. of Science, Indian and Pontifical Academies, India. Eduardo Rapoport, Ecologist, Third World Academy, Argentina Marianne Rasmuson, Geneticist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. Peter Raven, Director, Missouri Botanical Garden; National Academy of Sciences, USA. Martin Rees, Astronomer, Royal Society & Pontifical Academy, Great Britain. Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Anthropologist, Columbian & Third World Academies, Columbia. Tadeus Reichstein, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Switzerland Frederick Reines, Physicist, National Medal of Science, USA. Alexander Rich, Biologist, National & Pontifical Academies, USA. Burton Richter, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Ralph Riley, Wolf Prize in Agriculture, Great Britain. Claude Rimington, Inst. for Cancer Research, Norwegian Academy of Science, Norway. Gustavo Rivas Mijares, Engineer; Fmr. President, Academy of Sciences, Venezuela. Frederick Robbins, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Wendell Roelofs, Entomologist, National Medal of Science, USA. Betty Roots, Zoologist, Academy of Sciences, Canada. Miriam Rothschild, Biologist, Royal Society, Great Britain. Sherwood Rowland, Chemist; President, American Association for the Advancement of Science; USA. Janet Rowley, Physician, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Carlo Rubbia, Nobel laureate, Physics, Italy & Switzerland. Vera Rubin, Physicist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Yuri Rudenko, Energy Research Inst., State Prize laureate, Russia. Elizabeth Russell, Jackson Laboratory, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Albert Sabin, Virologist, National Medal of Science, USA. Carl Sagan, Astrophysicist & Author, USA. Roald Sagdeev, Physicist, Russian & Pontifical Academies, Russia & USA. Ruth Sager, Geneticist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Farrokh Saidi, Surgeon, Third World Academy, Iran. Abdus Salam, Nobel laureate, Physics; President, Third World Academy of Sciences, Pakistan & Italy. Frederick Sanger, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Jose Sarukhan, Biologist, Third World Academy, Mexico. Berta Scharrer, Neuroscientist, National Medal of Science, USA. Richard Schultes, Botanist, Tyler Prize, USA. Melvin Schwartz, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Julian Schwinger, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Glenn Seaborg, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. Michael Sela, Weizmann Inst., Pontifical Academy of Science, Israel. Arne Semb-Johansson, Entomologist, Norwegian Academy of Science, Norway. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Chemist, Pontifical & Third World Academies, Pakistan. Kai Siegbahn, Nobel laureate, Physics; Sweden. Thomas Silou, Biochemist, African Academy of Sciences, Congo Herbert Simon, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA. Alexej Sitenko, Physicist, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Ukraine. Jens Skou, Biophysicist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Denmark. Charles Slack, Agricultural Science, Royal Society, New Zealand. George Snell, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Roger Sperry, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Alexander Spirin, Biologistn Lenin Prize, Russia. Earl Stadtman, Biochemist, National Medal of Science, USA. Thressa Stadtman, Biochemist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Ledyard Stebbins, Geneticist, National Medal of Science, USA. Jack Steinberger, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA & Switzerland. Janos Szentgothai, Fmr. President, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Hungary. Tan Jia-zhen, Geneticist, Shanghai Univ., China. Andrezej Tarkowski, Embryologist, Polish [text missing] Valentine Telegdi, Wolf Prize in Physics, Switzerland. Kirthi Tennakone, Physicist, Third World Academy, Sri Lanka. Walter Thirring, Physicist, Austrian & Pontifical Academies, Austria. Donnall Thomas, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Jan Tinbergen, Nobel laureate, Economics; Netherlands. Samuel C. C. Ting, Nobel laureate, Physics; USA. James Tobin, Nobel laureate, Economics; USA. Alexander Todd, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Susumu Tonegawa, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Japan & USA. Cheng Kui Tseng, Oceanologist, Chinese & Third World Academies, China. Hans Tuppy, Biochemist, Austrian & Pontifical Academies, Austria. James Van Allen, Physicist, Crafoord Prize, USA. Simon van der Meer, Nobel laureate, Physics; Netherlands & Switzerland. John Vane, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Great Britain. Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Martha Vaughan, Biochemist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. George Wald, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Henrik Wallgren, Zoologist, Society of Science & Letters, Finland. E. T. S. Walton, Nobel laureate, Physics, Ireland. Prawase Wasi, Hematologist, Third World Academy, Thailand. Gerald Wasserburg, Geophysicist, Crafoord Prize, USA. James Watson, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Victor Weisskopf, Wolf Prize in Physics, USA. Thomas Weller, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Diter von Wettstein, Physiologist, Royal Academy of Sciences, Denmark. Fred Whipple, Astronomer, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Gilbert White, Geographer, Tyler Prize, USA. Torsten Wiesel, Nobel laureate, Medicine; USA. Jerome Wiesner, Physicist, Fmr. President, Mass. Inst. of Tech., USA. Maurice Wilkins, Nobel laureate, Medicine; Great Britain. Geoffrey Wilkinson, Nobel laureate, Chemistry; Great Britain. Richard Willems, Geneticist, Estonian Biocentre, Estonia. Edward O. Wilson, Biologist, Crafoord Prize, USA. Lawrence A. Wilson, Agricultural Science, Third World Academy, Trinidad Evelyn Witkin, Biologist, National Academy of Sciences, USA. Yang Fujia, Physicist, Chinese & Third World Academies, China. Alexander L. Yanshin, Geologist, Karpinsky Gold Medal, Russia. Yongyuth Yuthavong, Biochemist; Director, National Sci. & Tech. Devl. Agency, Thailand Zhao Zhong-xian, Physicist, Chinese & Third World Academies, China. Zhou Guang-zhao, Physicist; President, Chinese Academy of Sciences;, China. Solly ZuckerInan, Zoologist, Royal Society, Great Britain.

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Over 1,500 members of national, regional, and international science academies have signed the Warning. Sixtynine nations from all parts of Earth are represented, including each of the twelve most populous nations and the nineteen largest economic powers. The full list includes a majority of the Nobel laureates in the sciences. Awards and institutional affiliations are listed for the purpose of identification only. The Nobel Prize in medicine is for physiology or medicine. If you know of a top tier scientist who in 1992 didn't sign but was asked, they would be on the short list.

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Union of Concerned Scientists, 96 Church Street, Cambridge, Mass 02238-9105, USA. ucs@igc.apc.org

Origininal copy above is from on Union of Concerned Scientists website.

 


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